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Recent Submissions

Prosocial attributes relate to lower recidivism in justice-involved youth: preliminary evidence using a novel measure of prosocial functioning
(2023) Schmidt, Adam T. (TTU); Duron, Jacquelynn; Bergquist, Becca K. (TTU); Bammel, Alexandra C. (TTU); Maloney, Kelsey A.; Williams-Butler, Abigail; Hanten, Gerri R.
Purpose: Though prosocial attributes are linked to positive outcomes among justice-involved adolescents and are a mainstay of numerous interventions, few measures have been specifically designed to evaluate prosocial functioning within this population. Although multiple instruments measuring aspects of prosocial behavior exist, these instruments were not designed to measure prosocial behaviors among youth in juvenile justice settings. This study aims to provide a preliminary validation of a new measure of prosocial attributes (the Prosocial Status Inventory – PSI), which was designed to comprehensively evaluate in greater depth the prosocial functioning of urban, justice-involved youth. Design/methodology/approach: Youth (n = 51) were recruited as part of a larger study and were participants in a community-based mentoring program in a large, urban county in the Southern USA. Youth completed the PSI at baseline prior to their participation in the community-based mentoring program. The authors obtained follow-up data on recidivism from the county juvenile justice department. Findings: PSI scores were positively related to a lower rate of recidivism and a decrease in offending frequency over a 12-month follow-up period. Originality/value: The current findings complement previous work, suggesting that prosocial attributes are measurable and related to important outcomes among justice-involved youth and support the utility of strengths-based treatment approaches. Moreover, it provides preliminary evidence of the utility of a new self-report measure to assess these traits within a juvenile justice population.
Addressing spreading pressure dependence of real adsorbed solution theory with generalized Langmuir isotherm
(2023) Vyawahare, Pradeep (TTU); Hamin, Usman (TTU); Sees, Michael D. (TTU); Chen, Chau-Chyun (TTU)
This work addresses spreading pressure dependence of Real Adsorbed Solution Theory (RAST) for mixed-gas adsorption equilibria using generalized Langmuir (gL) isotherm. Considering vacant sites as an integral part of competitive multicomponent adsorption on a constant adsorbent surface area, the gL isotherm properly accounts for surface heterogeneity and loading, adsorbate composition, and temperature dependence. We show the spreading pressure dependence of adsorbate activity coefficient expression in the RAST framework can be generated from the gL isotherm. The procedure is illustrated with a spreading pressure dependent adsorption Nonrandom Two-Liquid activity coefficient model, and the results are validated for ten binary mixed-gas adsorption equilibria systems including two highly nonideal azeotropic systems.
The Relations between an Inventory-Based Measure of Executive Function and Impulsivity Factors in Alcohol- and Cannabis-Relevant Outcomes
(2023) Cooke, Jeffrey T. (TTU); Schmidt, Adam T. (TTU); Garos, Sheila (TTU); Littlefield, Andrew K. (TTU)
Objective: While the lack of relation between performance- and inventory-based executive function (EF) measures is well documented, there remains ambiguity between self-report EFs and closely related constructs (e.g., impulsivity) assessed via the same method. The degree of convergence between purported EF measures with similar yet distinct constructs contain important theoretical implications for available EF assessment strategies and their construct validity. A newer measure of EF, the Behavior Regulation Inventory of Executive Functions—Adult (BRIEF-A), allows for more direct comparisons to self-reported measures of impulsivity, such as the commonly used Urgency, Planning, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking—Positive Urgency (UPPS-P) assessment. Method: The present study used factor analysis and hierarchical regression to explore the associations between the BRIEF-A and UPPS-P, using alcohol and cannabis consumption across various outcomes (i.e., quantity-frequency and consequences) as an external criterion. Participants were 339 undergraduate students (Mage = 19.35; Female = 63%) from a large southwestern university. Results: The BRIEF-A and UPPS-P demonstrated strong correlations at both higher- and lower order facets. While the BRIEF-A was a significant correlate to many substance use outcomes, these relations were generally weaker than those seen with the UPPS-P. Hierarchical regression suggested limited contributions of the BRIEF-A over and above the UPPS-P. Conclusions: Overall, this study suggested substantial overlap between impulsigenic factors and EFs when measured by self-report, and limited utility of EF measures to account for unique variance with substance use outcomes in this sample.
Post-fire herbicide application yields largest reductions of Macartney rose (Rosa bracteata) in Attwater’s prairie-chicken habitat
(2023-05) Lechnar, Catherine V.
Macartney rose (Rosa bracteata) and red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta, RIFA) have invaded the coastal prairie of Texas, a highly fragmented ecosystem. The Attwater’s prairie-chicken is endemic to the coastal prairie and is critically endangered due to habitat loss and a lack of resources. At Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, patch burn grazing as well as pesticides are used to manage invasive species and improve plant and arthropod diversity as a diet source for Attwater’s prairie-chickens. We implemented four herbicide treatments surrounding Winter 2021/2022 prescribed fires to better understand how herbicide (GrazonNext HL) alters Macartney rose cover and density, the plant and arthropod communities, and RIFA populations. Herbicide was applied either before fire, after fire, before and after fire, or not at all in plots throughout the refuge. We found plots that received herbicide before and after fire to be the only plots that had significant reductions in both cover and density while plots that did not receive herbicide or only received it after fire had reductions only in density and plots that only had herbicide before fire did not see any reduction in cover or density. Further, we found over all increases in plant community diversity throughout the study with a great increase following prescribed fire. Arthropod diversity was not influenced by treatments, plant diversity, or RIFA populations, and RIFA were not correlated with any independent variables. This study found the herbicide GrazonNext HL to be ineffective when used only before fire and most effective when used both before and after fire to best reduce cover and density of Macartney rose. We found land history to be the most significant factor when understanding Macartney rose management where areas with frequent treatments away from surrounding private lands has much lower cover and density. Spraying herbicide and implementing prescribed fire every 2-3 years in this region over time has limited Macartney rose expansion.
Investigating the influence of dietary fiber source and multicarbohydrase supplementation on digestibility, energy, systemic health, water balance, and gut motility in gestating sows
(2023-05) Crome, Thomas A.
Carbohydrases supplemented in grow-finish pig diets can improve energy and nutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal function of growing pigs. However, research on their effectiveness in gestation diets is limited. The experimental objective was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms associated with multicarbohydrases in gestating sows fed soluble and insoluble fiber diets typical to U.S. production. A total of 36 confirmed gestating sows (186 ± 4.6 kg BW) were blocked by parity randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets (n=9) in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments on d 28 of gestation. Factors included fiber type of insoluble (IF; 15.1 IDF%) or soluble fiber (SF; 4.6 SDF%) and with (+) or without (-) enzyme (0.05%, Rovabio Advance P10; Adisseo, Antony, France). Diets were fed from d 28 to 109 of gestation at a feeding level of 2.1 kg (SID-Lys 11 g/d and 4.5 NE-Mcal/d). Two separate 9-d metabolism periods were conducted on d 50 to 59 (mid) and 99 to 108 (late) of gestation where serum and plasma were collected via jugular venipuncture. During each period, d 1 to 3 served as an adaptation period, d 4 to 7 total urine and feces were collected (96-h) and followed by a 48-h lactulose-mannitol study. Data were analyzed as repeated records using a linear mixed model with block as a random effect, and fiber type, enzyme, and period and their interactions as fixed effects. Irrespective of collection period, enzyme supplementation increased GM-CSF in sows fed IF but reduced it in those fed SF (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.042). Sows fed SF+ had increased serum IL-1ra (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.035), and IL-2 (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.042). In the presence of IF, multicarbohydrases increased serum LBP, but not when supplemented with SF (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.028). Circulating IL-8 (0.24 vs. 0.10 ng/ml) and TNF-a (1.26 vs. 0.60 ng/ml) were decreased in sows fed multicarbohydrases (Enzyme P<0.05). Multicarbohydrase supplementation increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF by 2.8%, 3.4%, and 8.3%, respectively (Enzyme P<0.05). Compared to IF-, the ATTD of hemicellulose was 5.3% greater in sows fed IF+ but did not differ from SF- and SF+ (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.037). Furthermore, in late gestation sows fed IF had 11% greater ATTD of hemicellulose (Period×Fiber P=0.035). Sows fed multicarbohydrases excreted less energy in their urine (519 vs. 469 GE kcal/d; Enzyme P=0.033) and in their feces (985 vs. 900 GE kcal/d; Enzyme P=0.003). This resulted in an improvement in both DE (3723 vs. 3856 kcal/kg; Enzyme P<0.01) and ME (3484 vs. 3583 kcal/kg; Enzyme P=0.041), irrespective of fiber type. Sows had a 3.5% greater ME in late gestation (3451 vs. 3572 kcal/kg; Period P<0.01). In conclusion, multicarbohydrase supplementation increased the energetic contribution of IF and SF in sow diets and may reduce systemic endotoxin and inflammatory pressures throughout gestation, but mechanisms are unique to dietary fiber type.