Analysis of covariance: The treatment of subjects as groups in an illustrative application with a baseball model
Williams, Larry Robert
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Kim and Kohout (19 75) have noted that most texts devoted to a discussion of analysis of variance and/or covariance routinely assume that the collected data are experimental in nature and employ random assignment. However, social and behavioral scientists are increasingly dealing with variables which are nonmanipulative and designs which are observational rather than experimental. Wildt and Ahtola (1978) have proposed that analysis of covariance has numerous potential applications for behavioral research even though it has not been frequently utilized for problems in the various social science disciplines. Therefore, the major motivation behind this study was directed toward broadening the social scientist's currently restricted range of utilized methodologies and encouraging opportunistic and creative exploitation of unique measurement possibilities, especially with regard to the statistical technique of analysis of covariance.