Computer anxiety and innovativeness as predictors of technology integration
Rogers, Richard K.
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The focus of this study was to determine if there existed significant relationships between the level of computer anxiety, innovativeness, and the level of technology integration in pre-service teachers. The study used two hundred pre-service students enrolled at a private university in the state of Texas. The sample was a sample of convenience. The design of this study was causal-comparative and correlational. Three instruments were used to collect the data: the Innovativeness Scale introduced by Hurt, Joseph, and Cook in 1977, the Computer Anxiety Index developed by Montag, Maurer and Simonson in 1984, the Teaching with Technology Instrument developed by Atkins and Vasu in 1998. No significant differences were found between certification level and innovativeness. None were found between content area and computer anxiety or innovativeness. The differences between gender and computer anxiety and the differences between gender and innovativeness were found to be not significant. Significant relationships were found between computer anxiety, innovativeness, and technology integration. Significant differences were also found between a pre-service teacher's certification level and computer anxiety. All-Level certification seekers had higher computer anxiety than other levels of certification.