Sex-role stereotypes in sports and games
Creel, Lonna Richardson
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The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument which would measure sex-role stereotyping in children through selected sport and game objects. Eighty-seven children (^2 boys and kS girls) aged 6, 8, and 10 were randomly selected as subjects. The instrument which was devised contained 19 pictures consisting of objects used in various sports and games. Subjects were instructed to look at each picture and decide if they thought that boys play with the object, if girls do, or if both boys and girls play with the object. Subjects made their responses by placing an "X" in one of three boxes with the headings "BOYS", "GIRLS", and "BOYS AND GIRLS". If they did not recognize the object, they were to mark their response in the box with the question mark. Information concerning each subject's age, sex, ethnic group, brother-sister status, and parental status was obtained to determine the relationship between these variables and stereotyping. Chi Square was computed to determine if there were significant changes in stereotyping when compared with each variable. Reliability of the instrument was determined by calculating a contingency coefficient and the percentage of repeatability for each activity. A test-retest method was used in which one week elapsed before the second test was administered. The reliability coefficient for the 19 activities ranged from A? to .98. The low contingency coefficient for some of the activities may be attributed to the fact that several subjects did not recognize the activities and resorted to guessing. Findings of this study indicated that sex-role stereotyping does exist in sports and games. Stereotyping diminished with age and was not limited to a particular sex. Sex, ethnic group, brother-sister status, and parental status had little effect on stereotyping by the subjects.