Synthesis and characterization of lanthanide chelates for biomedical imaging
Griffin, John Michael Mansfield
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Early detection is critical to the clinical outcome in the treatment of cancers (1-3). As an example, colon cancer accounts for 15% of all US cancer related deaths. Once these types of cancer reach metastatic activity there is only a 7% survival rate. In addition, only 37% percent of colon cancers are found early enough for moderate treatment (1). Oral cancer is another example of the necessity for early detection. Each year about 31,000 Americans develop oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for 95%) of all malignant oral lesions with SCC having a survival rate of only 50%). Yet when this type of cancer is detected in its earliest stages then the survival rate becomes approximately 80% 4). However, current state-of-the-art detection means often miss early stage colon and oral SCC disease. These detection protocols employ white light endoscopy with gross visualization (5-6). Yet the visual cues for determination of disease state are small, especially the discrimination between non-malignant and dysplastic and pre-malignant lesions. Visual assessment of early lesions within the colon and oral cavities depends on many factors, including the experience of the clinician and his ability to identify the suspect lesions at an early stage of development, and selection of the suspect site that is to be biopsied. Clearly there is a significant need for the enhancement of detection of diseased tissue at its earliest stages to improve the clinical outcome.