A model of college instructors' demandingness and responsiveness and effects on students' achievements outcomes
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This study attempted to answer the question, "How do students' perceptions of the demandingness and responsiveness of instructors directly and indirectly affect students' achievement outcomes in their college classes through the psychological components of motivation and use of metacognitive strategies?" This question is based on studies conducted by Baumrind (1971, 1991) that identified correlations between the demandingness and responsiveness of parents and adolescent behavior, and Williams (2000) who examined the relationships between demandingness and responsiveness of advisors and graduate students' experiences. It is also based on research about the components of self-regulation and the roles these factors play in students' academic achievement. Using a survey instrument to measure students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, motivation, use of metacognitive strategies, and instructors' demandingness and responsiveness, analysis of the data was then conducted using SPSS and LISREL.8. Latent variables of responsiveness, motivation, metacognitive strategy use, and students' achievement outcomes were defined by three observed variables each. The latent construct of demandingness was represented by one observed variable. Although the observed variables measuring demandingness should be expanded, the results of this study did find latent variables were well defined by the observed variables and that relationships did exist between the latent variables as predicted. Responsiveness and demandingness of college instructors also appeared to influence, directly and indirectly, the achievement outcomes of students. Areas that need further research include examining the relationship between demandingness and responsiveness as well as studies of samples in which there is a larger variability in students' grades so that problems in these areas could be investigated more thoroughly. This study is important because improvement in instructors' teaching will benefit students. If the results of the study can help identify the processes used by academically successful learners, instructors may be able to adopt methods of teaching that will assist students to succeed in this environment. Creating an environment in which instructors' set high expectations for students while nurturing and supporting students, should increase students' satisfaction and learning in the college course and add to the knowledge base about students' motivation and use of metacognitive strategies leading to positive achievement outcomes.