Development of a model to measure customer satisfaction with international tourist hotels in Taiwan
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In Taiwan, there is no commonly accepted and official standard to measure customer satisfaction in hotels. A customer satisfaction index represents a uniform system for evaluating, comparing, and enhancing customer satisfaction within firms and industries (Fornell, Johnson, Anderson, Cha, & Bryant, 1996). The purpose of this preliminary study was to develop an appropriate customer satisfaction index model associated with Taiwanese international tourist hotels and identify any significant differences in guests’ perceptions of service quality, hotel image, perceived value and customer satisfaction based on gender, age, nationality, education, and annual income. This study utilized a convenience sampling method to collect data in six international tourist hotels in Taipei, Taiwan from May 1 through May 20, 2009. Questionnaires with stamped envelopes were given to each guest as they checked out. Each of six hotels was allotted 200 questionnaires, which were distributed by fieldworkers who stood in front of reception desk to invite guests to participate in this study. Of the 1,200 questionnaires distributed, 352 were usable (29.33% response rate). Respondents included 65.90% male and 34.10% female. Taiwan R.O.C was the nationality of 34.38% of guests with 20.17% from Japan, and 11.93% from North America. The study used Structural Equation Modeling to test the hypotheses and relationships among variables in the proposed customer satisfaction index model. In addition, this study used ANOVA to test for significant differences in terms of service quality, hotel image, perceived value, and customer satisfaction based on gender, age, nationality, education, and annual income. Statements of hotel guests who responded to open-ended questions during the pilot study as well responses to qualitative questions by experts in the hotel industry and university educators helped to clarify the meaning of items included in the structured questionnaire. When the items on the final questionnaire matched the top three attributes of four constructs (service quality, hotel image, perceived value, and customer satisfaction) of the qualitative findings, the researcher demonstrated that the items on the questionnaire were more reliable and valid. Results indicated that a modified customer satisfaction index model provided a uniform means of assessing the quality of customer satisfaction in Taiwanese international tourist hotels. For hotel owners and managers, this customer satisfaction index could be a useful tool for evaluating customer satisfaction and would provide a significant complement to conventional measurements of customer satisfaction.