The effect of a cognitive behavioral exercise program on the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines
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Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Mindfulness-Based Exercise Program (MBEP) on pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interferon –γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor - α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin – 4 and Interleukin - 10). Methods: After completing a measure of psychological stress, 19 female college students (23 ± 3.7 years old) were assigned to either the control (CTRL) or intervention (TC) group on the basis of their resting levels of cortisol values. The MBEP (experimental) group practiced MBEP sessions twice a week for 8 weeks with each session of total 2 hours. Subjects were analyzed through Trier Social Stress Protocol for assessing subject to quantify the physiological stress response. Blood samples for the quantification of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interferon –γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor - α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin – 4 and Interleukin - 10) and subjective stress measures were obtained before and after the MBEP sessions. Two separate 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVA’s were used to analyze pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Separate 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVA’s were used to analyze subjective levels of stress pre-post intervention. Results: No significant differences were found between groups for pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines; however slight increase was observed in trends of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Significant differences were observed in Spielberger’s Trait and Spielberger’s State Anxiety scale, Perceived stress scale and Stress Vulnerability scale.