Reduction of Salmonella in post-harvest hot pork carcass and chilled head meat using multiple USDA-FSIS approved interventions
Orange, Ashley Nicole
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Salmonella continues to be a leading cause of morbidity due to foodborne illness in the United States, accounting for 11% of the total annual foodborne illness cases (> 1 million) as well as 35% of hospitalizations and 28% of deaths related to foodborne disease. Pork is known to carry Salmonella, and it is critical that interventions be validated in simulated industry settings to demonstrate effective reductions of this pathogen. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of various USDA-FSIS safe and suitable approved interventions on the reduction of Salmonella on pre-evisceration and post-harvest chilled pork head meat. Fresh pork product was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of Rifampicin Resistant Salmonella strains (S. Newport T1-473, S. Typhimurium R1-089, S. Enteritidis T1-496, S. Montevideo 11TTU382B, and S. Anatum 11TTU158B). Pork product was dipped into a Salmonella solution of approximately 7.00 Log10 CFU/ml for a final inoculated concentration of nearly 5.00 Log10 CFU/cm2 on the pork surfaces. Interventions tested in this study included: 1) Sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (pH 1.3), 2) Peracetic acid (350 ppm), 3) Lactic acid (3%), 4) Citric acid (1.3%), 5) Hypobromous acid (300 ppm), 6) Lauramide arginine ethyl ester (200 ppm), 7) Peracetic acid (400 ppm) with 2% acetic acid, and 8) Sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (pH 1.3) combined with peracetic acid (350 ppm). Treatments were prepared according to manufacturers’ recommendations to desired concentrations and confirmed using a pH meter, chemical titration and test kits specified for each intervention prior to treatment of the pork meat. A commercial CHAD cabinet (CHAD Equipment LLC., Olathe, KS., United Sates) was used to apply individual treatments at ambient temperature (21°C) at a speed of 1 ft/2.5 sec at a pressure of 40 lb/in2. Salmonella on the pork was enumerated before treatments, and 5 and 24 hours after treatment. Salmonella was enumerated on Tryptic Soy Agar modified to have a concentration of 100 mcg/mL of rifampicin within the agar solution. Each experiment was replicated three times and statistically analyzed using ANOVA and pairwise T-tests.