Comparative evaluation of transmembrane ion transport due to monopolar and bipolar nanosecond, high-intensity electroporation pulses based on full three-dimensional analyses
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Electric pulse driven membrane poration finds applications in the fields of biomedical engineering and drug/gene delivery. Here we focus on nanosecond, high-intensity electroporation and probe the role of pulse shape (e.g., monopolar-vs-bipolar), multiple electrode scenarios, and serial-versus-simultaneous pulsing, based on a three-dimensional time-dependent continuum model in a systematic fashion. Our results indicate that monopolar pulsing always leads to higher and stronger cellular uptake. This prediction is in agreement with experimental reports and observations. It is also demonstrated that multi-pronged electrode configurations influence and increase the degree of cellular uptake.