Effect of Animation on Naming and Identification of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions in Turkish Preschoolers
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Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions was investigated for 2 graphic symbol sets in typically developing Turkish preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design, preschoolers across three age groups (3, 4, and 5 years old) were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array in response to a verbal label. Results: Older children correctly named and identified more graphic symbols in comparison to younger children. Across all age groups, children named animated symbols with higher accuracy than static symbols. This effect was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. In addition, ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS symbols. Further, a higher percentage of ALP symbols for prepositions were identified than PCS symbols; however, this difference was not observed for verbs. Conclusions: Animation facilitates the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. Facilitative effects for animation were more pronounced for ALP symbols than for PCS symbols.