Quantifying the Coach–Athlete–Parent (C–A–P) Relationship in Youth Sport: Initial Development of the Positive and Negative Processes in the C–A–P Questionnaire (PNPCAP)
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Youth sport participation is valued worldwide. Coaches, parents, and athlete youth routinely interact. These interactions impact youth sport participation. To date, only a 48-item measure exits assessing the overall perception of the coach–athlete–parent relationship with the same question set for coaches, parents, and athletes. However, this 48-item measure has not undergone quantitative development. Hence, we sought to assess these 48 items and to further develop a valid and reliable instrument measuring the coach–athlete–parent relationship. To do so, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 308 participants completed the existing 48-item measure, resulting in 15 items that were fit into two dimensions, positive and negative group processes. In Study 2, 678 participants completed the 15-item measure. After examining the analyses, 11 items remained to form the Positive and Negative Processes in the Coach–Athlete–Parent Questionnaire (PNPCAP). In summary, the PNPCAP is a valid brief measure for assessing interpersonal relationships among coach–athlete–parents in both team and individual sport contexts. Future research is needed to continue to develop the scale for construct validity as well as translate the scale into multiple languages to determine validity in across countries.