A meta-analytic review of Elliot's (1999) Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in the sport, physical activity, and physical education literature
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Purpose The purpose of this quantitative review was to summarize the state of Elliot's Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Motivation, specifically the antecedents of the 2 × 2 achievement goals in the sport, physical activity, and physical education literature. In addition, the intercorrelations amongst the 2 × 2 goals were also examined. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Meta-analytic procedures were used with the mean weighted sample correlation (rw) as the effect size metric. The antecedents were coded by Elliot's (1999) antecedent categories. A number of moderators were coded a priori. Results Based on a fixed effects model from 47 published studies (total unique n = 15,413) that met inclusion criteria, the 2 × 2 achievement goals were significantly correlated amongst each other ranging from small to medium to large in meaningfulness. Concerning the antecedents, overall they were theoretically correct in associations, but only a few of the relationships were medium in meaningfulness. Most relationships were small in meaningfulness. Heterogeneity was present for the interrcorrelation and antecedent analyses. Conclusion Future research is encouraged to grow and enrich the understanding of achievement goals within Elliot's complete Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Motivation to include both antecedents and outcomes simultaneously to improve upon the understanding of achievement motivation in sport, exercise, and physical activity settings.