Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Estradiol + Trenbolone Acetate Implants Alter Myogenic mRNA, β-Adrenergic Receptors, and Blood Metabolites
Smith, Zachary K.
Ribeiro, Flavio R.B.
Johnson, Bradley J.
Two commonly used growth promotants in the United States beef industry are β-agonists and anabolic steroid hormones. Each has been shown to increase lean muscle deposition in cattle provided treatments of each growth technology, but much is still unknown of how steroidal implants and β-agonists work in combination. It was our goal to determine the effect of implant strategy and β-agonist administration in beef feedlot heifers (n = 264). A 3 × 2 factorial randomized complete block design was used with 2 levels of OPT and 3 different durations of terminal implant (TI) windows for a total of 6 treatment groups with 9 replications. Terminal implants (20 mg estradiol/200 mg trenbolone acetate implant, Component TE-200) were provided to heifers 140 d from slaughter (TI140), 100 d from slaughter (TI100), or 60 d from slaughter (TI60). Animals receiving the later two TI being first implanted on day 0 (8 mg estradiol/80 mg trenbolone acetate implant, Component TE-IH). The second treatment of the cattle received was the orally active beta adrenergic agonist, ractopamine-hydrochloride (RH) in the form of Optaflexx®(OPT; 0 (NO) or 200 (YES) mg/hd·d-1) over the final 28 days of the trial. Thirty animals were subjected to longissimus muscle (LM) biopsies on d 0, 40, 80, 112, and at slaughter on d 140 to view mRNA levels of myogenic related genes and protein quantities of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1 AR) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2 AR). On the same days, blood samples were taken from 108 animals to assess changes in plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and progesterone due to treatments. Relative mRNA levels of myosin heavy chain IIX (MHC IIX), AMPKα, and IGF-I were increased (P < 0.05) in animals receiving a TI100 over the other two implant dates after OPT was fed to animals. After OPT administration myosin heavy chain IIA (MHC IIA) mRNA levels tended to decrease (P = 0.09) due to OPT. An interaction between TI d and OPT administration caused an increase (P < 0.05) in MHC IIA mRNA level in the TI60/Yes treatment group over all other treatments except the TI100/No treatment group. Protein intensity of the β2 AR was decreased (P < 0.05) by the latest TI d (TI60) during OPT feeding, while β1 AR protein intensity tended to be lower (P < 0.10) in animals fed OPT. Plasma BUN levels were reduced (P < 0.05) after terminal implants and OPT feeding; while progesterone was decreased (P < 0.05) by OPT alone. Neither growth promotant affected NEFA levels in plasma. Collectively, these data indicate that ractopamine hydrochloride and estradiol + trenbolone acetate implants alter myogenic mRNA, β-adrenergic receptors, and blood metabolites in finishing beef heifers.