Zilpaterol Hydrochloride affects Cellular Muscle Metabolism and Lipid Components of 10 Different Muscles in Feedlot Heifers
Johnson, Bradley J.
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This study determined if zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered muscle metabolism and lipid components of 10 muscles. Crossbred heifers were either supplemented with ZH (n = 9) or not (Control; n = 10). Muscle tissue was collected (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi, longissimus dorsi, pectoralis profundi, semitendinosus, subscapularis, trapezius) immediately following carcass splitting. The mRNA abundance of AMPkɑ, IGF-I, MHC-I, IIA and IIX, β1-adrenergic receptor (βAR) and β2AR was determined, as well as, cross-sectional area and proportion of myosin isoforms, β1AR, β2AR, β3AR, nuclei, and satellite cell density. Furthermore, neutral (NL) and polar lipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) were quantified (mg/g). Zilpaterol hydrochloride decreased MHC-IIA mRNA (P = 0.007). In addition, ZH decreased total nuclei and β1AR and increased MHC-IIX cross-sectional area (P ≤ 0.021). Quantity of NL FA were not affected by ZH (P ≥ 0.173). However, among PL FA the ratio of PUFA:SFA was greater with ZH (P = 0.048). Muscle type impacted mRNA concentration of AMPkɑ, IGF-I, MHC-I, IIA, IIX, and β1AR mRNA concentration (P ≤ 0.037). Furthermore, the fiber type proportion, fiber cross-sectional area, and the densities of nuclei, β1AR, β2AR, β3AR, and satellite cells were influenced by muscle type (P ≤ 0.030). Total NL FA were affected by muscle (P ≤ 0.046). Meanwhile, total PL FA did not differ due to muscle (P = 0.242). However, prominent PL FA,18:0, 18:1 trans, and 18:2 n-6 were each greater (P < 0.05) among the oxidative subscapularis compared with glycolytic semitendinosus and adductor femoris. Overall, these data reveal that ZH impacts muscle metabolism and myogenic activity that establishes protein deposition. Meanwhile, ZH did not alter triglyceride content (NL), but cell membrane saturation (PL) was influenced, in accordance with alterations to muscle fiber type. Muscle also influenced muscle fiber type and lipid components. Therefore, muscle biology is greatly influenced by muscle but also through dietary inclusion of ZH.