Peanuts or an Isocaloric Lower Fat, Higher Carbohydrate Nighttime Snack Have Similar Effects on Fasting Glucose in Adults with Elevated Fasting Glucose Concentrations: a 6-Week Randomized Crossover Trial
Sapp, Philip A.
Kris-Etherton, Penny M.
Petersen, Kristina S. (TTU)
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Background: The glycemic effects of peanuts are not well studied and no trials have been conducted in adults with elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Furthermore, intake of peanuts as a nighttime snack, an eating occasion affecting FPG, has not been examined. Objectives: The aim was to determine the effect of consuming 28 g/d of peanuts as a nighttime snack for 6 wk on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease risk factors, compared with an isocaloric lower fat, higher carbohydrate (LFHC) snack (whole grain crackers and low-fat cheese), in adults with elevated FPG. Methods: In a randomized crossover trial, 50 adults (FPG 100 ± 8 mg/dL) consumed dry roasted, unsalted peanuts [164 kcal; 11% energy (E) carbohydrate, 17% E protein, and 73% E fat] or a LFHC snack (164 kcal; 54% E carbohydrate, 17% E protein, and 33% E fat) in the evening (after dinner and before bedtime) for 6 wk with a 4-wk washout period. Primary (FPG) and secondary end points [Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), weight, insulin, fructosamine, lipids/lipoproteins, central and peripheral blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity] were evaluated at the beginning and end of each condition. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis. Results: FPG was not different between the peanut and LFHC conditions (end point mean difference: −0.6 mg/dL; 95% CI: −2.7, 1.6; P = 0.67). There were no between-condition effects for secondary cardiometabolic endpoints. The HEI-2015 score was not different between the conditions (3.6 points; P = 0.19), although the seafood/plant protein (2.0 points; P < 0.01) and added sugar (0.8 points; P = 0.04) components were improved following peanut intake. The whole grain component was lower with peanuts compared with LFHC (−2.6 points; P < 0.01). Conclusions: In adults with elevated FPG, peanuts as a nighttime snack (28 g/d) did not affect FPG compared with an isocaloric LFHC snack after 6 wk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03654651.