Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future

dc.creatorBalaguera-Reina, Sergio A. (TTU)
dc.creatorEspinosa-Blanco, Ariel S.
dc.creatorMorales-Betancourt, Mónica A.
dc.creatorSeijas, Andrés E.
dc.creatorLasso, Carlos A.
dc.creatorAntelo, Rafael
dc.creatorDensmore, Llewellyn D. (TTU)
dc.description© 2017 Balaguera-Reina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.description.abstractConservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius), defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU) and regional research priorities (RRP) for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM) to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2) and Venezuela (919 km2), which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius’ potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon) exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries) where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia) and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries). Caño Guaritico (Creek) and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species is still critical, which implies the necessity to increase efforts to recover the species, especially in Colombia, to guarantee its survival as a structural and functional component of the ecosystems it inhabits.en_US
dc.identifier.citationBalaguera-Reina SA, Espinosa-Blanco AS, Morales-Betancourt MA, Seijas AE, Lasso CA, Antelo R, et al. (2017) Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0172439.
dc.subjectConservation Scienceen_US
dc.subjectSpecies Delimitationen_US
dc.subjectSurface Wateren_US
dc.titleConservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and futureen_US


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