Investigating the influence of dietary fiber source and multicarbohydrase supplementation on digestibility, energy, systemic health, water balance, and gut motility in gestating sows

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Carbohydrases supplemented in grow-finish pig diets can improve energy and nutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal function of growing pigs. However, research on their effectiveness in gestation diets is limited. The experimental objective was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms associated with multicarbohydrases in gestating sows fed soluble and insoluble fiber diets typical to U.S. production. A total of 36 confirmed gestating sows (186 ± 4.6 kg BW) were blocked by parity randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets (n=9) in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments on d 28 of gestation. Factors included fiber type of insoluble (IF; 15.1 IDF%) or soluble fiber (SF; 4.6 SDF%) and with (+) or without (-) enzyme (0.05%, Rovabio Advance P10; Adisseo, Antony, France). Diets were fed from d 28 to 109 of gestation at a feeding level of 2.1 kg (SID-Lys 11 g/d and 4.5 NE-Mcal/d). Two separate 9-d metabolism periods were conducted on d 50 to 59 (mid) and 99 to 108 (late) of gestation where serum and plasma were collected via jugular venipuncture. During each period, d 1 to 3 served as an adaptation period, d 4 to 7 total urine and feces were collected (96-h) and followed by a 48-h lactulose-mannitol study. Data were analyzed as repeated records using a linear mixed model with block as a random effect, and fiber type, enzyme, and period and their interactions as fixed effects. Irrespective of collection period, enzyme supplementation increased GM-CSF in sows fed IF but reduced it in those fed SF (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.042). Sows fed SF+ had increased serum IL-1ra (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.035), and IL-2 (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.042). In the presence of IF, multicarbohydrases increased serum LBP, but not when supplemented with SF (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.028). Circulating IL-8 (0.24 vs. 0.10 ng/ml) and TNF-a (1.26 vs. 0.60 ng/ml) were decreased in sows fed multicarbohydrases (Enzyme P<0.05). Multicarbohydrase supplementation increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF by 2.8%, 3.4%, and 8.3%, respectively (Enzyme P<0.05). Compared to IF-, the ATTD of hemicellulose was 5.3% greater in sows fed IF+ but did not differ from SF- and SF+ (Fiber×Enzyme P=0.037). Furthermore, in late gestation sows fed IF had 11% greater ATTD of hemicellulose (Period×Fiber P=0.035). Sows fed multicarbohydrases excreted less energy in their urine (519 vs. 469 GE kcal/d; Enzyme P=0.033) and in their feces (985 vs. 900 GE kcal/d; Enzyme P=0.003). This resulted in an improvement in both DE (3723 vs. 3856 kcal/kg; Enzyme P<0.01) and ME (3484 vs. 3583 kcal/kg; Enzyme P=0.041), irrespective of fiber type. Sows had a 3.5% greater ME in late gestation (3451 vs. 3572 kcal/kg; Period P<0.01). In conclusion, multicarbohydrase supplementation increased the energetic contribution of IF and SF in sow diets and may reduce systemic endotoxin and inflammatory pressures throughout gestation, but mechanisms are unique to dietary fiber type.

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Carbohydrases, digestibility, gestating sows, insoluble and soluble fiber