A quantitative analysis of the flame produced by a gas-fueled propellant simulating burner including: soot field characterization, temperature diagnostic techniques, spectral analysis, heat flux, and aluminum particle combustion



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Texas Tech University


This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner devised to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner is designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) to a gas reactant flame. This work encompasses four different studies that both evaluate the performance of the burner as well as display its ability as a versatile test platform. First, the burner is used to create a high temperature, heavily sooting flame as the basis of the development of a virtual thermocouple model in a fire code at Sandia National Laboratories (VULCAN). Secondly, similar conditions are created to evaluate the effectiveness of dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements in heavily sooting flames. These thermometry measurements indicate the temperature profiles that exist in fuel rich conditions. Laser induced incandescence (LII) measurements map soot volume fractions and give insight into the reactant gas mixing in the flame structure. The third project evaluates the aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner based on temperature, heat flux, spectral emission, product species, and particle velocity. Using these results, flame performance is quantified in comparison to other known flames including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. Lastly, an aluminized flame is used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work indicates the capability of the burner as test platform for Sandia’s ongoing effort to develop a comprehensive particulate combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. These studies accomplish two primary objectives: (1) characterization of a flame produced by a new and unique burner; and, (2) verification that the burner fulfills its design purpose of recreating small scale propellant flame conditions.



Flame, Burner, Propellant, Aluminum, Combustion