Space Analog Survey: Review of Existing and New Proposal of Space Habitats with Earth Applications

Abstract

All human habitat problems fall into three major categories – the environment, the habitat itself, and the occupants. By breaking these problems down into common themes and addressing them directly, we can build a common knowledge base for all three challenges faced by humanity. A crew living in space has the new problems of coping with radiation, microgravity, and vacuum. Meanwhile, they are dealing with the usual issues of eating, sleeping, and getting along with the rest of the occupants. By isolating the differences between space and earth habitats, we can create common architectural approaches for each human habitat challenge where commonality is appropriate. We can then examine the differences, and finally isolate and modularize the secondary systems where possible. This simplifies experimentation and testing of the physical and psychological design of a structure on Earth prior to attempting to use it in space. It also allows spin-off architectures for extreme environments, off-grid settlements, research bases, and low-impact communities on Earth with applications for self-sustainable building. This paper will show numerous examples of architectures designed for space or space-analog research bases. These designs can be both descoped to off-grid sustainable architecture, and scoped up for space habitat applications. Concepts such as internal greenhouses, enclosed permaculture, thermal protection, energy management, and radiation shielding are included for both minimal habitats and large bases. These systems can be applied for disaster first responders, research bases in extreme environments, off-grid homes, and low-impact communities. Examples of these applications are also presented in this paper with a series of projects developed by the authors.

Description

Germany
Netherlands
United States
France
Japan
Politecnico di Milano / Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
ESA-ILEWG
University of Houston
3Develop
University of Orleans,
Day Five, LLC
Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine
Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)
ESA ESTEC
502
ICES502: Space Architecture
Vienna, Austria
Dr. Irene Lia Schlacht, Politecnico di Milano / Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
Prof. Bernard Foing, Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Prof. Olga Bannova, University of Houston, USA
M.Sc. Frans Blok, 3Develop, The Netherlands
Dr. Alexandre Mangeot, University of Orleans, France
M.Sc. Kent Nebergall, Day Five, LLC, The Netherlands
Dr. Ayako Ono, Japan Mars Society, Japan
Dipl. –Ing. Daniel Schubert, Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR)
Agata Maria Kolodziejczyk, ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands
The 46th International Conference on Environmental Systems was held in Vienna, Austria, USA on 10 July 2016 through 14 July 2016.

Keywords

Analogue, Space Architecture, Closed Loop, Sustainability, Human Factors

Citation