Unveiling a Biomarker Signature of Meningioma: The Need for a Panel of Genomic, Epigenetic, Proteomic, and RNA Biomarkers to Advance Diagnosis and Prognosis
Meningiomas are the most prevalent primary intracranial tumors. The majority are benign but can undergo dedifferentiation into advanced grades classified by World Health Organization (WHO) into Grades 1 to 3. Meningiomas’ tremendous variability in tumor behavior and slow growth rates complicate their diagnosis and treatment. A deeper comprehension of the molecular pathways and cellular microenvironment factors implicated in meningioma survival and pathology is needed. This review summarizes the known genetic and epigenetic aberrations involved in meningiomas, with a focus on neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and non-NF2 mutations. Novel potential biomarkers for meningioma diagnosis and prognosis are also discussed, including epigenetic-, RNA-, metabolomics-, and protein-based markers. Finally, the landscape of available meningioma-specific animal models is overviewed. Use of these animal models can enable planning of adjuvant treatment, potentially assisting in pre-operative and post-operative decision making. Discovery of novel biomarkers will allow, in combination with WHO grading, more precise meningioma grading, including meningioma identification, subtype determination, and prediction of metastasis, recurrence, and response to therapy. Moreover, these biomarkers may be exploited in the development of personalized targeted therapies that can distinguish between the 15 diverse meningioma subtypes.