Perturbative stability analysis of deformable charged bodies revealing the mathematical origin of Planck constant



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This article considers elementary particles like electrons as finitely sized deformable bodies and analyzes the classical mechanics of their interior continuum. The consequent findings answer a long-standing question in physics by computing Planck constant mathematically. It also explains quantum phenomena like wave-particle duality, uncertainty principle and atomic stability without resorting to phenomenological relations like Planck’s law or Bohr’s postulates. The analysis introduces the criteria for perpetual stability under arbitrary perturbations to compensate for the lack of system-defining initial conditions typically available in a classical mechanics problem. Accordingly, unperturbed leading order field solutions are first constructed from steady rotation and axisymmetric electromagnetic potentials. Then, novel perturbation theories uniquely render the particulate geometry along with mass and charge distributions by exploiting the stability conditions. The approach reveals the perpetually stable body to have surface charges encapsulating a slender disk with a radius-to-thickness ratio 51.36 and a rim velocity of 0.09798c. The volumetric densities for rest-mass and charge are seen to vary with dimensionless radius (r) as ( 1 − r 2 ) − 3 / 2 and ( 1 − r 2 ) − 2 . The theory infers that the deformable system with many degrees of freedom would exhibit several pulsating modes. One such vibration, named quantum mode in this paper, causes spontaneous oscillation of the particulate center in the equatorial plane with a unique time period of oscillation. This wavy motion manifests wave-particle duality, whereas its probabilistic amplitude is identified as the reason behind quantum uncertainties. Moreover, in response to external fields, the charge deforms to create dipoles which can nullify radiation-inducing Poynting vector to ensure atomic stability. Finally, the Planck constant is retrieved after dividing the rest-energy by the frequency of the quantum mode. Thus, the paper concludes that a new detailed mechanics can potentially describe subatomic physics if charges are perceived as perpetually stable but readily deformable finite bodies, not rigid shape-less entities.


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charged continuum, classical continuum mechanics, electrodynamics of deformable matter, elementary particles, fine structure constant, perturbative stability analysis, quantum phenomenology


Bhattacharya, S., & Bhattacharya, S.. 2024. Perturbative stability analysis of deformable charged bodies revealing the mathematical origin of Planck constant. Physica Scripta, 99(6).