Global Prevalence of Zika and Chikungunya Coinfection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses with significant pathogenicity, posing a substantial health and economic burden on a global scale. Moreover, ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection imposes additional therapeutic challenges as there is no specific treatment for ZIKV or CHIKV infection. While a growing number of studies have documented the ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection, there is currently a lack of conclusive reports on this coinfection. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the true statistics of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection in the global human population. Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar without limitation in terms of language or publication date. A total of 33 studies containing 41,460 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO under the registration number CRD42020176409. The pooled prevalence and confidence intervals of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection were computed using a random-effects model. The study estimated a combined global prevalence rate of 1.0% [95% CI: 0.7–1.2] for the occurrence of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection. The region of North America (Mexico, Haiti, and Nicaragua) and the country of Haiti demonstrated maximum prevalence rates of 2.8% [95% CI: 1.5–4.1] and 3.5% [95% CI: 0.2–6.8], respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of coinfection was found to be higher in the paediatric group (2.1% [95% CI: 0.0–4.2]) in comparison with the adult group (0.7% [95% CI: 0.2–1.1]). These findings suggest that the occurrence of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection varies geographically and by age group. The results of this meta-analysis will guide future investigations seeking to understand the underlying reasons for these variations and the causes of coinfection and to develop targeted prevention and control strategies.


© 2024 by the authors. cc-by


chikungunya, coinfection, global prevalence, meta-analysis, systematic review, zika


Ahmed, S., Sultana, S., Kundu, S., Alam, S.S., Hossan, T., & Islam, M.A.. 2024. Global Prevalence of Zika and Chikungunya Coinfection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Diseases, 12(2).