Efficient Acceleration of Deep Learning Inference on Resource-Constrained Edge Devices: A Review

Abstract

Successful integration of deep neural networks (DNNs) or deep learning (DL) has resulted in breakthroughs in many areas. However, deploying these highly accurate models for data-driven, learned, automatic, and practical machine learning (ML) solutions to end-user applications remains challenging. DL algorithms are often computationally expensive, power-hungry, and require large memory to process complex and iterative operations of millions of parameters. Hence, training and inference of DL models are typically performed on high-performance computing (HPC) clusters in the cloud. Data transmission to the cloud results in high latency, round-trip delay, security and privacy concerns, and the inability of real-time decisions. Thus, processing on edge devices can significantly reduce cloud transmission cost. Edge devices are end devices closest to the user, such as mobile phones, cyber-physical systems (CPSs), wearables, the Internet of Things (IoT), embedded and autonomous systems, and intelligent sensors. These devices have limited memory, computing resources, and power-handling capability. Therefore, optimization techniques at both the hardware and software levels have been developed to handle the DL deployment efficiently on the edge. Understanding the existing research, challenges, and opportunities is fundamental to leveraging the next generation of edge devices with artificial intelligence (AI) capability. Mainly, four research directions have been pursued for efficient DL inference on edge devices: 1) novel DL architecture and algorithm design; 2) optimization of existing DL methods; 3) development of algorithm-hardware codesign; and 4) efficient accelerator design for DL deployment. This article focuses on surveying each of the four research directions, providing a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art tools and techniques for efficient edge inference.

Description

© 1963-2012 IEEE. cc-by

Keywords

Algorithm-hardware codesign, artificial intelligence (AI), artificial intelligence on edge (edge-AI), deep learning (DL), model compression, neural accelerator

Citation

Shuvo, M.M.H., Islam, S.K., Cheng, J., & Morshed, B.I.. 2023. Efficient Acceleration of Deep Learning Inference on Resource-Constrained Edge Devices: A Review. Proceedings of the IEEE, 111(1). https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2022.3226481

Collections