Vorticity dynamics in transcritical liquid jet breakup

Abstract

A transcritical domain with a sharp two-phase interface may exist during the early times of liquid hydrocarbon fuel injection at supercritical pressure. Thus, two-phase dynamics are sustained before substantial heating of the liquid and drive the early three-dimensional deformation and atomisation. A recent study of a transcritical liquid jet showed distinct deformation features caused by interface thermodynamics, low surface tension and intraphase diffusive mixing. In the present work, the compressible vortex identification method is used to study the vortex dynamics in a cool liquid n-decane transcritical jet surrounded by a hotter oxygen gaseous stream at supercritical pressures. The relationship between vortical structures and the liquid surface evolution is detailed, along with the vorticity generation mechanisms, including variable-density effects. The roles of hairpin and roller vortices in the early deformation of lobes, the layering and tearing of liquid sheets and the formation of fuel-rich gaseous blobs are analysed. At these high pressures, enhanced intraphase mixing and ambient gas dissolution affect the local liquid structures (i.e. lobes). Thus, liquid breakup differs from classical sub-critical atomisation. Near the interface, liquid density and viscosity drop by up to 10 % and 70 %, respectively, and the liquid is more easily affected by the vortical motion (e.g. liquid sheets wrap around vortices). Despite the variable density, compressible vorticity generation terms are smaller than the vortex stretching and tilting. Layering traps and aligns the vortices along the streamwise direction while mitigating the generation of new rollers.

Description

© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press. cc-by-nc-nd

Keywords

multiphase flow, vortex dynamics, vortex interactions

Citation

Poblador-Ibanez, J., Sirignano, W.A., & Hussain, F.. 2023. Vorticity dynamics in transcritical liquid jet breakup. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 978. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2023.961

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