The Impact of Flipped Learning on Middle School Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Achievement: A Mixed Methods Study



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The term blended learning has become commonplace in the post-COVID educational landscape, although it has been utilized as an instructional method for decades. When schools across the country transitioned to remote learning in March 2020, teachers and school districts attempted to continue learning at a distance. However, the remote learning that was created as an emergency response was not always best practice. As schools have slowly transitioned back to in-person learning, educators have attempted to integrate what was gleaned from remote learning with what was previously conducted exclusively face-to-face. This blended learning, or learning that combines online learning with in-person learning, has been a hot topic in education recently. One model of blended learning is the flipped classroom, a pedagogical model where students watch instructional videos outside of class as their initial form of instruction, and then use the face-to-face portion of class to actively learn and construct knowledge. This instructional method is opposed to a more traditional model of learning, where students receive instruction in the form of in-person lectures, and then construct their knowledge and learn outside of class. Flipped learning has previously been found to increase achievement and self-efficacy in mathematics throughout many levels of education, with few studies focused on middle school students. This mixed-method study used an explanatory sequential research design to assess the impact of flipped learning on student achievement and self-efficacy on a group of 97 on-level 8th-grade mathematics students. Student self-efficacy and achievement were assessed before and after each unit and then compared within each class and across classes. After both units in this study were completed, one-on-one student interviews were conducted with students from both classes to elaborate on their experiences. The results of this study found that while flipped learning and traditional learning had an impact on achievement in mathematics, there was not a significant difference in mathematics achievement scores between the two groups. The results also offered evidence that flipped learning had no effect on student self-efficacy. This study provided insight into middle school student experiences in a flipped classroom compared to a traditional classroom and further identified the relationship between flipped learning, mathematics achievement, and mathematics self-efficacy.



middle school education, flipped learning, blended learning, mathematics education