Roaring to Softly Whispering: X-Ray Emission after ∼3.7yr at the Location of the Transient AT2018cow and Implications for Accretion-powered Scenarios

Abstract

We present the first deep X-ray observations of luminous fast blue optical transient (LFBOT) AT 2018cow at ∼3.7 yr since discovery, together with the reanalysis of the observation at δt ∼ 220 days. X-ray emission is significantly detected at a location consistent with AT 2018cow. The very soft X-ray spectrum and sustained luminosity are distinct from the spectral and temporal behavior of the LFBOT in the first ∼100 days and would possibly signal the emergence of a new emission component, although a robust association with AT 2018cow can only be claimed at δt ∼ 220 days, while at δt ∼ 1350 days contamination of the host galaxy cannot be excluded. We interpret these findings in the context of the late-time panchromatic emission from AT 2018cow, which includes the detection of persistent, slowly fading UV emission with νLν ≈ 1039 erg s−1. Similar to previous works (and in analogy with arguments for ultraluminous X-ray sources), these late-time observations are consistent with thin disks around intermediate-mass black holes (with M• ≈ 103–104 M☉) accreting at sub-Eddington rates. However, differently from previous studies, we find that smaller-mass black holes with M• ≈ 10–100 M☉ accreting at ≿the Eddington rate cannot be ruled out and provide a natural explanation for the inferred compact size (Rout ≈ 40 R☉) of the accretion disk years after the optical flare. Most importantly, irrespective of the accretor mass, our study lends support to the hypothesis that LFBOTs are accretion-powered phenomena and that, specifically, LFBOTs constitute electromagnetic manifestations of super-Eddington accreting systems that evolve to ≲Eddington over a ≈100-day timescale.

Description

© 2024. The Author(s). cc-by

Keywords

Citation

Migliori, G., Margutti, R., Metzger, B.D., Chornock, R., Vignali, C., Brethauer, D., Coppejans, D.L., Maccarone, T., Rivera, Sandoval, L., Bright, J.S., Laskar, T., Milisavljevic, D., Berger, E., & Nayana, A.J.. 2024. Roaring to Softly Whispering: X-Ray Emission after ∼3.7yr at the Location of the Transient AT2018cow and Implications for Accretion-powered Scenarios. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 963(1). https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ad2764

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