The Relationship Among Colorblindness, White Privilege, Implicit Bias, The Six Schema of White Racial Identity, and Multicultural Knowledge and Awareness: The Collective Impact on White Counselor Trainees’ Cultural Humility

dc.contributor.committeeChairMarbley, Aretha F.
dc.contributor.committeeMemberSchmidt, Marcelo
dc.contributor.committeeMemberNoble, Nicole
dc.creatorHicks, Brian A.
dc.date.accessioned2023-11-20T20:16:00Z
dc.date.available2023-11-20T20:16:00Z
dc.date.issued2023-08
dc.description.abstractThis was a quantitative study that examines the relationships among colorblindness, White privilege, implicit bias, the six schemas of White racial identity, and multicultural knowledge and awareness and the collective impact of these elements on White counselor trainees’ cultural humility (CH). The purpose of this study was to offer insights for improving multicultural counseling training that will better support White students' effectiveness when working with clients of color in a clinical setting. The guiding questions for the research are as follows: (1) How do colorblind racial attitudes impact White counseling students’ CH? (2) How does White privilege attitude impact White counseling students’ CH? (3) How do multicultural awareness and knowledge impact White counseling students’ CH? (4) How does the level of White racial identity attitude impact White counseling students’ CH? (5) How does racial implicit bias association impact White counseling students’ CH? The study used Sue and colleague’s (2007) revised taxonomy of microaggressions as the theoretical framework. This taxonomy provides a complex illustration of microaggression encounters of microassaults, microinsults, and microinvalidations, acknowledging they can be committed individually (micro) or environmentally (macro). This study found the following statistical significance: Statistically significant relationships were found to Cultural Humility (CH) of three types of colorblind racial attitudes and two types of White privilege attitudes. Both colorblind racial attitudes—unawareness of institutional discrimination and unawareness to blatant racial issues—were negatively correlated with CH. Among the White privilege attitudes, anticipated costs of addressing White privilege has a high cost was negatively correlated with CH, and confronting White privilege was positively correlated CH. Statistically significant negative relationships were found between Cultural Humility (CH) of two types of White racial identity schemas. There were negative correlations between the following: White racial identity schema disintegration and CH; White racial identity schema reintegration and CH. Statistically significant positive relationships were found between White racial identity schema autonomy and CH, Multicultural Counseling Knowledge, and Awareness (MCKAS) knowledge and CH, and MCKAS awareness and CH. This study found statistical significance for the following: Colorblind racial attitude factor unawareness of racial privilege exhibits a positive association with cultural humility (p < 0.02); Colorblind racial attitude factor unawareness of blatant racial issues exhibits a negative correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.01); White privilege attitudes subscale confronting White privilege exhibits a positive correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.01); White privilege attitudes subscale anticipated costs of confronting White privilege exhibits a negative correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.00); Color-blind racial attitude factor unawareness of institutional discrimination demonstrates a negative correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.05); Color-blind racial attitude factor unawareness to blatant racial issues demonstrates a negative correlation with CH (p < 0.001); White privilege attitude subscale anticipated costs of addressing White privilege exhibits a negative correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.001); White privilege attitude subscale confronting White privilege exhibits a positive correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.01); White racial identity schema disintegration exhibits a negative correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.001); White racial identity schema reintegration exhibits negative correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.001); White racial identity schema autonomy exhibits a positive correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.001); Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness (MCKAS) subscale knowledge exhibits a positive correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.05); MCKAS subscale awareness exhibits a positive correlation with cultural humility (p < 0.01). Implications of the findings for training, practice, theory, and methodology, and future research for multicultural counseling training development are discussed.
dc.format.mimetypeApplication/pdf
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2346/96835
dc.language.isoen
dc.rights.availabilityAccess is not restricted.
dc.subjectMulticultural Knowledge and Awareness
dc.subjectCultural Humility
dc.subjectImplicit Bias
dc.subjectColorblindness
dc.subjectWhite Racial Identity
dc.titleThe Relationship Among Colorblindness, White Privilege, Implicit Bias, The Six Schema of White Racial Identity, and Multicultural Knowledge and Awareness: The Collective Impact on White Counselor Trainees’ Cultural Humility
dc.typeDissertation
thesis.degree.departmentEducational Psychology, Leadership and Counseling
thesis.degree.disciplineCounselor Education and Supervision
thesis.degree.grantorTexas Tech University
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
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