Development and cell cycle activity of the root apical meristem in the fern ceratopteris richardii

Abstract

Ferns are a representative clade in plant evolution although underestimated in the genomic era. Ceratopteris richardii is an emergent model for developmental processes in ferns, yet a complete scheme of the different growth stages is necessary. Here, we present a developmental analysis, at the tissue and cellular levels, of the first shoot-borne root of Ceratopteris. We followed early stages and emergence of the root meristem in sporelings. While assessing root growth, the first shoot-borne root ceases its elongation between the emergence of the fifth and sixth roots, suggesting Ceratopteris roots follow a determinate developmental program. We report cell division frequencies in the stem cell niche after detecting labeled nuclei in the root apical cell (RAC) and derivatives after 8 h of exposure. These results demonstrate the RAC has a continuous mitotic activity during root development. Detection of cell cycle activity in the RAC at early times suggests this cell acts as a non-quiescent organizing center. Overall, our results provide a framework to study root function and development in ferns and to better understand the evolutionary history of this organ.

Description

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. cc-by

Keywords

Apical cell, Cell division, Determinate growth, Embryogenesis Ceratopteris, Merophytes, Plant development, Root meristem

Citation

Aragon-Raygoza, A., Vasco, A., Blilou, I., Herrera-Estrella, L., & Cruz-Ramirez, A.. 2020. Development and cell cycle activity of the root apical meristem in the fern ceratopteris richardii. Genes, 11(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121455

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