Consumer assessment and objective measures of beef flavor of four beef muscles from USDA choice and select graded carcasses

dc.contributor.committeeChairMiller, Markus F.
dc.contributor.committeeMemberBrooks, J. Chance
dc.contributor.committeeMemberRathmann, Ryan J.
dc.creatorHunt, Mary R.
dc.description.abstractA consumer study was conducted in Lubbock, Texas, to measure the effects of quality grade on the palatability traits of flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall liking of four beef muscles. The study was arranged as a 2 × 4 factorial representing two quality grade categories [Upper 2/3 (Top) Choice and Select] and four muscles [longissimus lumborum (LL), gluteus medius (GM), serratus ventralis (SV), and semimembranosus (SM)]. Sides (n = 40; 20 per quality grade category) of beef were selected from a commercial processing facility by trained Texas Tech University personnel to obtain subprimals containing the four muscles. Proximate analysis was conducted on each subprimal to determine percentage fat, moisture, protein, and collagen. Plus, fatty acid content (n = 48) and volatile analysis of cooked samples (n = 40) were analyzed for each treatment group. The muscles were then fabricated into 2.5-cm steaks, and further processed into 5 × 5 cm pieces. Consumers (n = 120) rated eight steak samples, one per treatment group, for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking and rated each trait as either acceptable or unacceptable. According to proximate analysis means, SV had more desirable (P < 0.01) fat percentage (9.7%) than any other muscle and SM had the least (2.5%); while LM (4.9%) and GM (5.1%) were intermediate. Regardless of muscle, Upper 2/3 Choice had more desirable (P < 0.01) fat percentage (7.1%) than Select (4.0%). An interaction between muscle and quality grade was observed (P < 0.05) for juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking. For juiciness, Upper 2/3 Choice SV had the most desirable (P = 0.02) consumer scores than any other muscle × quality grade combination. SM had the least juiciness scores, regardless of quality grade, which did not differ (P > 0.05). Consumer flavor liking and overall liking score exhibited similar trends indicating Upper 2/3 Choice LL, GM, and SV had more desirable (P < 0.02) scores than the remaining muscle × quality grade combinations. Consumer scores for flavor liking and overall liking for all muscles, except SM, were more desirable for Upper 2/3 Choice compared to Select. Similarly, tenderness scores were more desirable (P < 0.01) for Upper 2/3 Choice compared to Select, regardless of muscle. Consumers rated LL as more tender (P < 0.05) than SV and SM, but similar to GM (P = 0.52). Consumers scored the tenderness of SM less desirable (P < 0.01) compared to all other muscles. A decrease (P < 0.05) in consumer acceptability of each palatability trait was observed as quality grade decreased from Upper 2/3 Choice to Select. The SM showed the least acceptability scores for all the palatability traits. Overall and flavor acceptability were similar (P > 0.05) between LL, GM, and SV regardless of quality grade. Consumer overall liking was correlated (P < 0.01) with consumer tenderness (r = 0.75) and juiciness (r = 0. 68) ratings, but most highly correlated with flavor liking (r = 0.85). Results for fatty acids showed PUFA negatively affected consumer perceived flavor and overall liking in neutral lipid (NL) fractions. Within polar lipid (PL) fractions, linoleic acid (18:2)(r = -0.36) and Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20: 3n6)(r = -0.30)], know for negative flavor properties, were shown to negatively correlated with flavor. Additionally, as fat percentage increased NL and PL concentration increased linearly. There were 42 volatile compounds detected in the headspace of cooked steak samples. The majority detected were classified as aldehydes. Very few volatile compounds correlated with consumer palatability scores. When tenderness was acceptable, flavor and juiciness play a major role in determining overall acceptability. Even when consumers scored tenderness low, as with the SM, superior flavor and juiciness could compensate and improve the overall liking and acceptability of beef. Overall liking of SV and GM from high quality carcasses was superior to LL from lower quality carcasses and comparable to LL from high quality carcasses. Therefore, results from this study showed additional value could be captured by marketing more underutilized cuts from the chuck and sirloin of high quality carcasses
dc.subjectConsumer preference
dc.subjectFatty acid
dc.titleConsumer assessment and objective measures of beef flavor of four beef muscles from USDA choice and select graded carcasses
dc.typeThesis Science Tech University of Science


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