A navigation flight trajectory optimization model for UAVs operating in polar regions


There is a large need for improving aircraft navigation safety, and navigation performance in terms of time and fuel savings in the Polar Regions. Current UAV navigation systems do not fully support polar navigation. There is also a great need to making the current polar navigation methods less complex to the aircraft crew by making a large portion of the polar navigation process computerized. Current methods still present confusion or require the full attention of the crew when it comes to navigating using True North coordinate system in the Polar Regions. This research will examine the use of a new coordinate system of piloting a drone in the Polar Regions. It will first provide an overview of the current state and limitations of the drone navigation in high latitude regions. This study is limited to the use of UAVs in the high latitude regions. To overcome the challenges of True North coordinate system over the polar region and make navigation safer and reliable, this research will focus on the use of an alternative coordinate system. Additionally, as the use of UAVs become an essential part of human exploration across the globe, GPS scarce environments like the polar regions present a challenge for UAV navigation due to ionospheric scintillation and poor position satellite geometry making it hard to regularly obtain reliable GPS data during navigation. To overcome this challenge, this research will evaluate and compare the use of simple dead reckoning method vs dead reckoning based on the use of inertial navigation sensor INS/GPS based on Kalman Filter for UAV navigation in the Polar Regions. This research will evaluate and compare the errors associated with the navigation parameters position and heading using both methods while in the geographic coordinate system reference frame.



Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) polar navigation