Pathogenetic features and current management of glioblastoma

Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of primary malignant brain tumor with a devastatingly poor prognosis. The disease does not discriminate, affecting adults and children of both sexes, and has an average overall survival of 12–15 months, despite advances in diagnosis and rigorous treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection. In addition, most survivors will eventually experience tumor recurrence that only imparts survival of a few months. GBM is highly heterogenous, invasive, vascularized, and almost always inaccessible for treatment. Based on all these outstanding obstacles, there have been tremendous efforts to develop alternative treatment options that allow for more efficient targeting of the tumor including small molecule drugs and immunotherapies. A number of other strategies in development include therapies based on nanoparticles, light, extracellular vesicles, and micro‐RNA, and vessel co‐option. Advances in these potential approaches shed a promising outlook on the future of GBM treatment. In this review, we briefly discuss the current understanding of adult GBM’s pathogenetic features that promote treatment resistance. We also outline novel and promising targeted agents currently under development for GBM patients during the last few years with their current clinical status.

Description

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. cc-by

Keywords

GBM pathogenesis, Glioblastoma, Heterogeneity, Immunotherapy, Targeted therapy

Citation

Nguyen, H.-M., Guz-montgomery, K., Lowe, D.B., & Saha, D.. 2021. Pathogenetic features and current management of glioblastoma. Cancers, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040856

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