Age Differences in the Associations Between Incarceration and Subsequent Substance Use, Sexual Risk-Taking, and Incident STI Among Black Sexual Minority Men and Black Transgender Women in the HIV Prevention Trials 061 Cohort
Incarceration can lead to different risk behaviors often due to increased distress and disruption of social networks. It is not well known, however, how these associations may differ by age. In this study, we measure age differences in longitudinal associations between incarceration and substance use, sex risk, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among Black sexual minority men and Black transgender women (BSMM/BTW). We recruited BSMM/BTW from 2009 to 2011 that were part of the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study. We compared those less than 30 years old (n = 375) to those 30 years old or greater (n = 794) examining substance use, sex risk, and STI infection stratified by age. Logistic regression with inverse probability weighting was used for the statistical analysis. Approximately 59% of the sample reported incarceration history. In adjusted analysis, incarceration was more strongly associated with alcohol use and stimulant use among older individuals as was sexual risk behaviors including buying and selling sex. Concurrent partnerships were associated with the younger age groups. STI incidence was associated with younger individuals while associations with HIV infection were similar for the two age groups. Understanding differences in substance use and STI risk among age cohorts is imperative to the design and implementation of re-entry programs. Younger BSMM/BTW participating in re-entry support programs may benefit in particular from HIV/STI prevention and care efforts, while post-release substance abuse treatment and harm reduction programs should target older individuals with continued substance abuse.