Assessment and treatment of noncompliance across response topographies



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Noncompliance is reported to be a major problem by parents and teachers. To date, functional analyses of noncompliance and subsequent treatment procedures have been restricted to single response topographies (e.g., cleanup or matching task). The current study evaluated a modified functional analysis of noncompliance consisting of attention, escape, and control conditions across multiple response topographies (i.e., physical, gestural, and vocal) with four 6-year-old children with autism. We also conducted a functional analysis of noncompliance consisting of verbal attention, physical attention, escape, and control conditions with one participant. Subsequently, we implemented an additive intervention with three of the four participants consisting of (a) tokens and (b) guided compliance across the response topographies to measure generalization within and across response types. Results showed that the function of noncompliance was consistent across response topographies within participants but varied across participants. Additionally, generalization within response types and across (to the vocal response type) was observed with 2 of the 3 participants without direct intervention when the intervention was applied to physical and gestural response types; however, no generalization occurred with the third participant. These findings suggest that for some individuals compliance may be a response class and offer an efficient method for increasing compliance to multiple response types.



Noncompliance, Functional analysis, Generalization, Response class