Future directions for One Health research: Regional and sectoral gaps

Abstract

Implementation of a One Health approach varies considerably between different geographical regions and remains challenging to implement without greater inclusivity of different disciplinary capacity and expertise. We performed comparative analyses of abstracts presented at the 1st World One Health Congress (WOHC 2011) and 6th WOHC (2020) to explore and describe the evolving demographics and disciplinary scope of One Health research. We classified abstracts into six One Health research categories and twenty-three subcategories. We also recorded corresponding authors' country and regional affiliation as well as study country (i.e., the country in which the research was conducted) to explore potential asymmetries between funding recipients and study subjects. The WOHC has seen a significant expansion in participation over the last 10 years. The numbers of abstracts accepted to the Congress increased threefold over the last decade (i.e., 302 abstracts in 2010, and 932 abstracts in 2020). At both Congresses, “Disease Surveillance” accounted for the largest proportion (105/302 (35%) and 335/932 (36%) in 2010 and 2020, respectively) of all abstracts accepted. However, “Environmental and Ecological Issues” (33/302 (10%) and 94/932 (11%)), and “Sustainable Food Systems” (19/302 (6%) and 44/932 (4%)) were less well-represented categories of One Health research in both 1st and 6th WOHC respectively. In contrast, “Antimicrobial Resistance” related research increased substantially over time (4/302 (1%) in 2011) and (119/932 (13%) in 2020). There were also differences in the type of research by authors based in “Very High Human Development” index countries compared to “Medium and Low Human Development. “Public Policy” dominated the former, whereas “Disease Surveillance” dominated the latter, suggesting potential regional differences regarding One Health research priorities. The results of the study highlight potential regional gaps and differences in One Health research priorities, with respect to emphasis on operational (surveillance) versus strategic (policy) One Health activities.

Description

© 2023 The Authors cc-by-nc-nd

Keywords

Global health security, Human Development Index, One Health policy, Sustainability, World One Health Congress

Citation

Ahmed, T., Tahir, M.F., Boden, L., & Kingston, T.. 2023. Future directions for One Health research: Regional and sectoral gaps. One Health, 17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2023.100584

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