Deciphering Haplotypic Variation and Gene Expression Dynamics Associated with Nutritional and Cooking Quality in Rice


Nutritional quality improvement of rice is the key to ensure global food security. Consequently, enormous efforts have been made to develop genomics and transcriptomics resources for rice. The available omics resources along with the molecular understanding of trait development can be utilized for efficient exploration of genetic resources for breeding programs. In the present study, 80 genes known to regulate the nutritional and cooking quality of rice were extensively studied to understand the haplotypic variability and gene expression dynamics. The haplotypic variability of selected genes were defined using whole-genome re-sequencing data of ~4700 diverse genotypes. The analytical workflow identified 133 deleterious single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which are predicted to affect the gene function. Furthermore, 788 haplotype groups were defined for 80 genes, and the distribution and evolution of these haplotype groups in rice were described. The nucleotide diversity for the selected genes was significantly reduced in cultivated rice as compared with that in wild rice. The utility of the approach was successfully demonstrated by revealing the haplotypic association of chalk5 gene with the varying degree of grain chalkiness. The gene expression atlas was developed for these genes by analyzing RNA-Seq transcriptome profiling data from 102 independent sequence libraries. Subsequently, weighted gene co-expression meta-analyses of 11,726 publicly available RNAseq libraries identified 19 genes as the hub of interactions. The comprehensive analyses of genetic polymorphisms, allelic distribution, and gene expression profiling of key quality traits will help in exploring the most desired haplotype for grain quality improvement. Similarly, the information provided here will be helpful to understand the molecular mechanism involved in the development of nutritional and cooking quality traits in rice.


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).


Allelic Effects, Gene Expression Dynamics, Genetic Variation, Haplotypic Network, Molecular Evolution


Rana N, Kumawat S, Kumar V, Bansal R, Mandlik R, Dhiman P, Patil GB, Deshmukh R, Sharma TR, Sonah H. Deciphering Haplotypic Variation and Gene Expression Dynamics Associated with Nutritional and Cooking Quality in Rice. Cells. 2022; 11(7):1144.