ASU SPK-U Toilet System Development and Operation Review and Its Upgrading Plans



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51st International Conference on Environmental Systems


Disposal and sanitary devices (ASU) provides capability to collect crew urine and fecal from earliest Russian human space stations "Salut" and space vehicles "Soyuz" for about forty years. Their design was improved step by step to provide the most convenient toilet for the crew, conditions for the safe storage and disposal of waste, and then the water recovery from urine as part of the regeneration life support complex of the orbital station. Starting from the Mir station, the toilet is based on the SPK-U urine feed, separation and pretreatment system, which provided the possibility of further obtaining water from the urine in the SRV-U regeneration system, as well as long-term safe storage of waste before it is processed or removed from the station. The use of the upgraded ASU SPK-UM system in the Russian segment of the ISS since November 2000 and the same system with the addition of interface liquid units as part of US WHC since November 2008 fully provided the needs of ISS crews for the collection of urine and faeces, as well as reclaiming of water from urine in the US urine processor (UPA) and in the RS experimental system SRV-U-RS. Experience in the operation of ASU SPK-UM systems revealed the advantages and disadvantages of design and circuit solutions and made it possible to begin the modernization of systems for use in orbital stations and manned space vehicles. This paper will provide an overview of the changes in the design of Russian space toilets starting from the Salyut stations, summarize the experience of the operation of ASU SPK-UM as part of the ISS RS, highlight the ongoing developments on the modernization of the toilet for the station and manned space vehicles and plans for the introduction of new developments on the ISS.


Petr Andreychuk, RSC Energia, RU
Natalia Shamshina, RSC Energia, RU
Alexander Pavlov, NIICHIMMASH, RU
ICES404: International Space Station ECLS: Systems
The 51st International Conference on Environmental Systems was held in Saint Paul, Minnesota, US, on 10 July 2022 through 14 July 2022.


Russian space toilet, Urine feed separation and pretreatment system, Disposal and sanitary devices, ASU, SPK-U