Thermal analysis of skidding energetic materials



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Detailed is the investigation of the thermal behavior of high explosives (HE). Temperature is determined by measuring the thermal infrared radiation emitted PBX 9501 and PBX 9502 during skidding over a sapphire surface. Skidding is referred to as the act of impacting a surface with forces oblique to the surface. This skidding is performed on an apparatus that allows individual control over normal force, surface velocity, and presence of grit particles. The HE is attached to an I-beam where mechanical strain is measured and converted to force. Experiments are verified with a Phantom VEO710s high-speed visible camera, capable of recording up to 680,000 fps with a 7 GHz pixel clock. A FLIR X6901sc high-speed mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera is used to measure the temperature of the skidding HE. PBX 9501 and PBX 9502 are semi-transparent in the MWIR regime, posing a difficult task in determining their temperatures from measured thermal radiation. Accurate temperature readings require knowledge of the absorption coefficients of the HE, and the temperature gradients produced from skidding. Experiments with the FLIR camera and a thermal radiator were performed to estimate the absorption coefficient of the HE. COMSOL simulations were implemented to estimate temperature gradients beneath the surface.

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PBX 9501, PBX 9502, Skidding, FLIR camera, Mid-wave infrared (MWIR), Semi-transparent infrared (IR)