Data-driven identification of subtypes of intimate partner violence


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex problem with multiple layers of heterogeneity. We took a data-driven approach to characterize this heterogeneity. We integrated data from different studies, representing 640 individuals from various backgrounds. We used hierarchical clustering to systematically group cases in terms of their similarities according to violence variables. Results suggested that the cases can be clustered into 12 hierarchically organized subgroups, with verbal abuse and negotiation being the main discriminatory factors at higher levels. The presence of physical assault, injury, and sexual coercion was discriminative at lower levels of the hierarchy. Subgroups also exhibited significant differences in terms of relationship dynamics and individual factors. This study represents an attempt toward using integrative data analysis to understand the etiology of violence. These results can be useful in informing treatment efforts. The integrative data analysis framework we develop can also be applied to various other problems.


This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit


Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Mathematics and Computing, Psychology, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)


Hacıaliefendioğlu, A.M., Yılmaz, S., Smith, D. et al. Data-driven identification of subtypes of intimate partner violence. Sci Rep 11, 6736 (2021).