Characterization of metabolic profile, health, milk production, and reproductive outcomes of dairy cows diagnosed with concurrent hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia

Abstract

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterize the metabolic profile, health, milk production, and reproductive outcomes of cows diagnosed with hyperketonemia (HK; β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2 mmol/L), hypoglycemia (HG; glucose ≤2.2 mmol/L), or concurrent HK and HG (HKHG). Glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in whole blood were assessed using a handheld device (Precision Xtra, Abbott Laboratories) in lactating dairy cows (n = 2,418) between 3 and 9 d postpartum. Cows were categorized into 4 groups: no HK or HG (healthy; Norm = 1,821), HK only (HK = 232), HG only (HG = 161), and concurrent HK and HG (HKHG = 204). Subsequent milk production, along with health and reproductive outcomes, as recorded by farm personnel, were analyzed according to metabolic category. Serum collected on the day of cow-side diagnosis of hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia was evaluated for total calcium (tCa), magnesium (Mg), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and urea using an automated chemistry analyzer (Randox Daytona; Randox Laboratories Ltd.). Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc.). Hyperketonemia in multiparous cows was associated with greater incidence of metabolic abnormalities (hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and elevated NEFA and urea). Hyperketonemia in primiparous and multiparous cows led to increased adverse health events (culling rate, retained fetal membranes, puerperal metritis, clinical ketosis, left displaced abomasum) relative to Norm cows. Multiparous cows with HKHG had fewer metabolic disturbances (hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, elevated NEFA) than HK cows. Cows with HKHG had an increased incidence of clinical ketosis and left displaced abomasum relative to Norm cows. Cows with HG had similar metabolic profiles to Norm cows and had lower incidence of retained fetal membranes and puerperal metritis than cows with HK. Multiparous cows with HG produced more milk than Norm cows from wk 10 to 20, whereas multiparous cows with HK produced less milk than Norm cows. For primiparous cows, HK did not have a negative effect on milk production compared with Norm cows.

Description

© 2022 American Dairy Science Association cc-by

Keywords

hypocalcemia, ketosis, metabolic disorders, metritis

Citation

Hubner, A., Canisso, I.F., Peixoto, P.M., Coelho, W.M., Ribeiro, L., Aldridge, B.M., Menta, P., Machado, V.S., & Lima, F.S.. 2022. Characterization of metabolic profile, health, milk production, and reproductive outcomes of dairy cows diagnosed with concurrent hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia. Journal of Dairy Science, 105(11). https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-21327

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