Biophilic Design in Healthcare Environments: Schematic Guidelines and Approaches
This thesis reviews published research on the relationship between humans and the natural environment with a focus on healthcare settings. It also proposes schematic biophilic design guidelines for the increased wellbeing of patients, staff, and visitors in healthcare facilities. The thesis begins with a description and history of biophilia and has reviewed 14 books and 60 scientific papers. They were selected after a thorough and extensive literature search of both English and Portuguese sources. The findings are categorized into four natural elements (i.e., lighting, air, water, and plants), and two design elements (i.e., shapes and color). In addition, there is a special review on gardens. Based on the review, schematic design guidelines were created with the objective of helping architects and designers to utilize biophilic strategies to new or existing healthcare facilities. For ease of design applicability, the guidelines are presented in a visual format. They demonstrate that any healthcare facility can utilize biophilic design for appropriate human outcomes. In this manner, this thesis aims to be useful to both the researchers and the designers who are interested in biophilia in health and wellness facilities.