Combined Citrulline and Glutathione Supplementation Improves Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Reactivity in Postmenopausal Women

Abstract

Postmenopausal women (PMW) may experience endothelial dysfunction associated with arginine (ARG) deficiency relative to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) caused by oxidative stress. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to increased blood pressure (BP) responsiveness to sympathoexcitation induced by the cold pressor test (CPT). We investigated the effects of citrulline alone (CIT) and combined with the antioxidant glutathione (CIT+GSH) on vascular function. Forty-four healthy PMW were randomized to CIT (6 g), CIT+GSH (2 g + 200 mg: Setria®) or placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity, PWV), brachial and aortic BP reactivity to CPT, and serum fasting blood glucose (FBG), ARG, and ARG/ADMA ratio were measured. Baseline FBG was higher in CIT+GSH vs. PL. FMD increased after CIT+GSH vs. PL (p < 0.05). CIT and CIT+GSH increased ARG/ADMA (p < 0.05), but did not affect aortic PWV. CIT+GSH attenuated the brachial and aortic systolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to CPT vs. PL and CIT (p < 0.05). The improvements in FMD were related to baseline FMD (r = −0.39, p < 0.05) and aortic MAP response to CPT (r = −0.33, p < 0.05). This study showed that CIT+GSH improved FMD and attenuated systolic BP and MAP reactivity in PMW. Although CIT increased ARG/ADMA, it did not improve FMD in healthy PMW.

Description
© 2023 by the authors. cc-by
Keywords
arginine/ADMA ratio, blood pressure responsiveness, citrulline, endothelial function, glutathione
Citation
Figueroa, A., Maharaj, A., Kang, Y., Dillon, K.N., Martinez, M.A., Morita, M., Nogimura, D., & Fischer, S.M.. 2023. Combined Citrulline and Glutathione Supplementation Improves Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Reactivity in Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients, 15(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071557
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