Modern Cause and Effect Model by Factors of Root Cause for Accident Prevention in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

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Background: Factors related to root causes can cause commonly occurring accidents such as falls, slips, and jammed injuries. An important means of reducing the frequency of occupational accidents in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMSEs) of South Korea is to perform intensity analysis of the root cause factors for accident prevention in the cause and effect model like decision models, epidemiological models, system models, human factors models, LCU (life change unit) models, and the domino theory. Especially intensity analysis in a robot system and smart technology as Industry 4.0 is very important in order to minimize the occupational accidents and fatal accident because of the complexity of accident factors.

Methods: We have developed the modern cause and effect model that includes factors of root cause through statistical testing to minimize commonly occurring accidents and fatal accidents in SMSEs of South Korea and systematically proposed educational policies for accident prevention.

Results As a result, the consciousness factors among factors of root cause such as unconsciousness, disregard, ignorance, recklessness, and misjudgment had strong relationships with occupational accidents in South Korean SMSEs.

Conclusion: We conclude that the educational policies necessary for minimizing these consciousness factors include continuous training procedures followed by periodic hands-on experience, along with perceptual and cognitive education related to occupational health and safety.

© 2021 Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NCND license (
Cause and Effect Model, Commonly Occurring Accidents, Consciousness Factors, Educational Policies, Intensity Analysis, Perceptual and Cognitive Education, Root Causes
Kang, Y., Yang, S., & Patterson, P. (2021). Modern Cause and Effect Model by Factors of Root Cause for Accident Prevention in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises. Safety and Health at Work, 12(4), 505-510.