The Effects of Children on Gender Gaps among Immigrants in Denmark

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The Scandinavian countries have been recognized for high female labor force participation rate, a generous social insurance system, favorable family policies, and a glass ceiling, which indicates that females do not achieve the highest-paying positions. The idea is that because women are more involved in child rearing, they are encouraged to participate in the labor force less actively than males by choosing family-friendly jobs. Using unique Danish administrative data from the Statbank Denmark (Statistikbanken), I investigated the effects of number of children and number of immigrants on gender inequality in Denmark’s labor market. I have assembled micro datasets with rich information on gender gap, immigrant population, number of children, average income, labor force participation, unemployment rate, hours worked and education for over time. I used annual data for the period 1986-2021, and utilized orthogonalized impulse response techniques. The results suggest that the impact of the immigrants on the gender gap is more significant than the impact of the number of children.

Inequality, Gender gap, Migration