mcr-gene in Salmonella and Enterobacteriaceae in food products, food producing animals, and their environments in the Dominican Republic



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Antibiotics are administered in livestock for disease treatment of animals, and for production purposes such as growth promotion, or the prevention of infections. When bacteria are exposed to antibiotics for long periods of time, the microorganism will adapt and develop resistance to these drugs. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to critically important antibiotics is a global concern in public health. In developing countries, antibiotics such as colistin, often used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections in people, have been administered to livestock to promote the efficacy of the feed conversion rate and to treat or prevent diseases. The lack of surveillance systems and the limited information available about the use of antibiotics in agriculture in developing countries have represented an obstacle to control the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant genes in bacteria. The first section of this thesis provides an overview of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, and the use of antibiotics in agriculture. The second part investigates the presence of plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant (mcr) genes in food-producing animals and their environments. The objective of this investigation was to identify virulence factors associated with the acquisition and transference of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella isolated from samples of animal origin collected in the Dominican Republic



Enterobacteriaceae, Antibiotic resistance, Salmonella, Colistin, mcr-genes