COVID-19 and Rheumatoid Arthritis Crosstalk: Emerging Association, Therapeutic Options and Challenges

Abstract

Hyperactivation of immune responses resulting in excessive release of pro-inflammatory mediators in alveoli/lung structures is the principal pathological feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The cytokine hyperactivation in COVID-19 appears to be similar to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease. Emerging evidence conferred the severity and risk of COVID-19 to RA patients. Amid the evidence of musculoskeletal manifestations involving immune-inflammation-dependent mechanisms and cases of arthralgia and/or myalgia in COVID-19, crosstalk between COVID-19 and RA is often debated. The present article sheds light on the pathological crosstalk between COVID-19 and RA, the risk of RA patients in acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in RA development. We also conferred whether RA can exacerbate COVID-19 outcomes based on available clinical readouts. The mechanistic overlapping in immune-inflammatory features in both COVID-19 and RA was discussed. We showed the emerging links of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-dependent and macrophage-mediated pathways in both diseases. Moreover, a detailed review of immediate challenges and key recommendations for anti-rheumatic drugs in the COVID-19 setting was presented for better clinical monitoring and management of RA patients. Taken together, the present article summarizes available knowledge on the emerging COVID-19 and RA crosstalk and their mechanistic overlaps, challenges, and therapeutic options.

Description

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Keywords

ACE, ACE2, Anti-Rheumatic Drugs, COVID-19, Cytokine Storm, Immune Response, Inflammation, Rheumatoid Arthritis, SARS-COV-2, Therapeutic Options

Citation

Dewanjee S, Kandimalla R, Kalra RS, Valupadas C, Vallamkondu J, Kolli V, Dey Ray S, Reddy AP, Reddy PH. COVID-19 and Rheumatoid Arthritis Crosstalk: Emerging Association, Therapeutic Options and Challenges. Cells. 2021; 10(12):3291. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123291

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