A validation of 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantion and lactic acid on salmonella and shiga toxin producing escherichia coli on beef head and cheek meat



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Escherichia coli and Salmonella are enteric pathogens that can cause severe illnesses including Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, (HUS) and even death. These pathogens are present in the environment, including the soil and grass, gastrointestinal tract and on the hide of cattle during harvest and can be transmitted to meat during the harvest process. Offal that is produced during the harvest process can become contaminated with Escherichia coli and Salmonella, which is significant when certain offal products, such as cheek and head meat, can be ingredients ground products such as hamburger meat, beef patties, and beef patty mix. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of 1,3-Dibromo-5,5 Dimethylhydantion (DBMDH) in comparison to lactic acid, and water in the reduction of E. coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, O157:H7, as well as Salmonella Enteritis strains 13076 & 31194, Salmonella Typhimurium strains 31194 &13311, and Salmonella Heidelberg. Three replications of the study were conducted. Cheek and head meat (n=3) were inoculated with the above mentioned STECs and Salmonella, and assigned to one of 4 interventions: 1) control (no treatment); 2) tap water at 37°C; 3) 650 ppm DBMDH; 4) and 3.5% lactic acid. Each piece of meat was inoculated with a cocktail of each STEC and Salmonella at a concentration of approximately 107 for one minute, turning midway through, and allowed to sit in a hood for 30 minutes to allow for microbial attachment. After attachment, the water, DBMDH, and lactic acid pieces were treated. After the each treatment, the pieces were allowed to sit for 60 minutes, and were then sampled. Those sampled for STECs were subjected to serial dilutions using BPW and plated onto MacConkey agar, that were overlaid with 15 ml of TSA, while the Salmonella samples were also diluted and plated on Xylose Lysine Desoxycholate media, that were also overlaid with 15 ml of TSA. The results of the study indicate that lactic acid significantly reduced (P < 0.05) Salmonella concentrations on both head and cheek meat by 1.15 log CFU/cm² and 0.68 log CFU/cm², respectively. STECs concentrations were also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) on head meat by 0.87 log CFU/cm², however lactic acid did not reduce (P < 0.05) STECs counts on cheek meat. Neither the water treatment nor DBMDH produced a significant (P>.05) reduction for either STECs or Salmonella on either head or cheek meat. Results indicate that while DBMDH did not significantly (P < 0.05) reduce pathogen counts, lactic acid was effective in significantly (P < 0.05) reducing pathogen counts on head and cheek meat for Salmonella and head meat for STECs.



Head meat, Cheek meat, Beef, Lactic acid, DBMDH