Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a Narrative Review of Biological Mechanisms, Treatments, and Outcomes

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous and complex neurodevelopmental disorder related to disruptions in various neuronal structures and pathways, dopamine (DA) transporter, and receptor genes, resulting in cognitive and regulation deficits. This article reviews recent research on the biological mechanisms and markers, clinical manifestations, treatments, and outcomes of adult ADHD as well as current controversies within the field.

Recent Findings: New research identifies white matter disruptions in multiple cortical pathways in adults with ADHD. New treatments for ADHD in adults such as viloxazine ER have shown preliminary effectiveness in addition to research showing transcranial direct current stimulation can be an effective treatment for adults with ADHD.

Summary: Although questions exist about the effectiveness of current assessments of and treatments for adult ADHD, recent findings represent a step towards improving the quality of life and outcomes for individuals experiencing this life-long, chronic health condition.

Description

This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use (https://www.springernature.com/gp/open-research/policies/accepted-manuscript-terms), but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-023-01280-4

Keywords

ADHD, Adult, Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Treatment, Assessment, Neuropsychology

Citation

Pagán, A.F., Huizar, Y.P., Short, T.R. et al. Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a Narrative Review of Biological Mechanisms, Treatments, and Outcomes. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 23, 451–460 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-023-01280-4

Collections