Heart Motion Prediction in Robotic-Assisted Beating Heart Surgery: A Nonlinear Fast Adaptive Approach



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Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery outperforms traditional on-pump surgery because the assisted robotic tools can alleviate the relative motion between the beating heart and robotic tools. Therefore, it is possible for the surgeon to operate on the beating heart and thus lessens post surgery complications for the patients. Due to the highly irregular and non-stationary nature of heart motion, it is critical that the beating heart motion is predicted in the model-based track control procedures. It is technically preferable to model heart motion in a nonlinear way because the characteristic analysis of 3D heart motion data through Bi-spectral analysis and Fourier methods demonstrates the involved nonlinearity of heart motion. We propose an adaptive nonlinear heart motion model based on the Volterra Series in this paper. We also design a fast lattice structure to achieve computational-efficiency for real-time online predictions. We argue that the quadratic term of the Volterra Series can improve the prediction accuracy by covering sharp change points and including the motion with sufficient detail. The experiment results indicate that the adaptive nonlinear heart motion prediction algorithm outperforms the autoregressive (AR) and the time-varying Fourier-series models in terms of the root mean square of the prediction error and the prediction error in extreme cases.


This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Heart Motion Prediction, Volterra Model, Quadratic Phase Coupling, Beating Heart Surgery


Liang, F., Yu, Y., Wang, H., & Meng, X. (2013). Heart Motion Prediction in Robotic-Assisted Beating Heart Surgery: A Nonlinear Fast Adaptive Approach. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems. https://doi.org/10.5772/55581