On the Thermodynamic Condition for Adsorption Azeotropes
Adsorption azeotropy is a common phenomenon in mixed-gas adsorption equilibria. Since the first literature report of binary adsorption azeotropes in 1933, numerous studies investigated the thermodynamic conditions for adsorption azeotropes but failed to reach definitive conclusions. Based on the generalized Langmuir isotherm model for multicomponent adsorption equilibria which takes into account the vacant site as part of the adsorbed phase, this study presents the thermodynamic condition for adsorption azeotropes as derived from the generalized Langmuir isotherm to be the equality of the ratios of adsorbed phase activity coefficient γi and adsorption equilibrium constant Kio for the two adsorbates in the binary 1–2 adsorption system, i.e., γ1/K1o = γ2/K2o. This adsorption azeotropic condition is analogous to the vapor–liquid equilibrium azeotropic condition, i.e., the equality of the products of liquid phase activity coefficient and saturation vapor pressure Pisat for the two components, i.e., γ1P1sat = γ2P2sat. We validated the thermodynamic condition for adsorption azeotropes with 14 azeotrope-forming adsorption systems in this study. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of the pressure, temperature, and adsorbed phase nonideality on azeotrope formation.